Farmers routinely ignore these needs without paying any economic price. They lock animals in tiny cages, mutilate their horns and tails, separate mothers from offspring, and selectively breed monstrosities. The animals suffer greatly, yet they live on and multiply. The theory of evolution maintains that all instincts and drives have evolved in the interest of survival and reproduction. It is certainly true that all instincts and drives evolved in order to meet the evolutionary pressures of survival and reproduction.
When these pressures disappear, however, the instincts and drives they had shaped do not evaporate instantly. Even if they are no longer instrumental for survival and reproduction, they continue to mould the subjective experiences of the animal. Why do modern people love sweets so much? Not because in the early 21st century we must gorge on ice cream and chocolate in order to survive. Rather, it is because if our stone age ancestors came across sweet, ripened fruits, the most sensible thing to do was to eat as many of them as they could as quickly as possible.
Why do young men drive recklessly , get involved in violent rows, and hack confidential internet sites? Because they are obeying ancient genetic decrees. Seventy thousand years ago, a young hunter who risked his life chasing a mammoth outshone all his competitors and won the hand of the local beauty — and we are now stuck with his macho genes.
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Exactly the same evolutionary logic shapes the life of cows and calves in our industrial farms. Ancient wild cattle were social animals. In order to survive and reproduce, they needed to communicate, cooperate and compete effectively. Like all social mammals, wild cattle learned the necessary social skills through play. Puppies, kittens, calves and children all love to play because evolution implanted this urge in them. In the wild, they needed to play. Similarly, evolution implanted in puppies, kittens, calves and children an overwhelming desire to bond with their mothers.
A chance mutation weakening the mother-infant bond was a death sentence. What happens when farmers now take a young calf, separate her from her mother, put her in a tiny cage, vaccinate her against various diseases, provide her with food and water, and then, when she is old enough, artificially inseminate her with bull sperm?
From an objective perspective, this calf no longer needs either maternal bonding or playmates in order to survive and reproduce. All her needs are being taken care of by her human masters. But from a subjective perspective, the calf still feels a strong urge to bond with her mother and to play with other calves. If these urges are not fulfilled, the calf suffers greatly. This is the basic lesson of evolutionary psychology: a need shaped thousands of generations ago continues to be felt subjectively even if it is no longer necessary for survival and reproduction in the present.
Tragically, the agricultural revolution gave humans the power to ensure the survival and reproduction of domesticated animals while ignoring their subjective needs. In consequence, domesticated animals are collectively the most successful animals in the world, and at the same time they are individually the most miserable animals that have ever existed. The situation has only worsened over the last few centuries, during which time traditional agriculture gave way to industrial farming.
In traditional societies such as ancient Egypt, the Roman empire or medieval China, humans had a very partial understanding of biochemistry, genetics, zoology and epidemiology. Consequently, their manipulative powers were limited.
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In medieval villages, chickens ran free between the houses, pecked seeds and worms from the garbage heap, and built nests in the barn. If an ambitious peasant tried to lock 1, chickens inside a crowded coop, a deadly bird-flu epidemic would probably have resulted, wiping out all the chickens, as well as many villagers. No priest, shaman or witch doctor could have prevented it. But once modern science had deciphered the secrets of birds, viruses and antibiotics, humans could begin to subject animals to extreme living conditions.
With the help of vaccinations, medications, hormones, pesticides, central air-conditioning systems and automatic feeders, it is now possible to cram tens of thousands of chickens into tiny coops, and produce meat and eggs with unprecedented efficiency. The fate of animals in such industrial installations has become one of the most pressing ethical issues of our time, certainly in terms of the numbers involved.
These days, most big animals live on industrial farms. We imagine that our planet is populated by lions, elephants, whales and penguins. The world contains 40, lions but, by way of contrast, there are around 1 billion domesticated pigs; , elephants and 1. In , there were 1. That same year, the European meat and egg industry raised 1. Altogether, the domesticated animals of the world weigh about m tonnes, compared with m tonnes for humans, and fewer than m tonnes for large wild animals. This is why the fate of farm animals is not an ethical side issue.
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Singer claimed that industrial farming is responsible for more pain and misery than all the wars of history put together. The scientific study of animals has played a dismal role in this tragedy. The scientific community has used its growing knowledge of animals mainly to manipulate their lives more efficiently in the service of human industry. Yet this same knowledge has demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that farm animals are sentient beings , with intricate social relations and sophisticated psychological patterns.
Assess all the moments throughout the book where Noah acts like a chameleon, noting the benefits and costs of that ability to adapt to a number of situations. Noah has an epiphany when, about to sell a stolen digital camera, he looks at the pictures on it and has second thoughts. Which was the whole reason the hood was built in the first place, to keep the victims of apartheid out of sight and out of mind. Because if white people ever saw black people as human, they would see that slavery is unconscionable.
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More broadly, what do his words suggest about the legacy of racism for South Africans? My father, Robert, is white. During apartheid, one of the worst crimes you could commit was having sexual relations with a person of another race. Examine the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of , as well as its amendment in and repeal in Discuss the overall impact of using humor, focusing on how humor enabled him to make friends and to get out of difficult situations.
In this discussion, pinpoint certain words and phrases Noah uses to support the analysis of the use of humor. New sections of the book begin with explanatory material ranging from historical documents to broader social and political commentaries about South Africa. Consider the function of these aspects of the book and then decide how this structure either supports or detracts from the work as a whole. These stories weave themselves throughout the book, concluding with a final story about her.
Evaluate why he anchors the book with their relationship and the impact of this decision. Using pages —, create a visual representation of Alexandra as he describes, supporting your decisions with textual evidence.
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Find supporting resources about Alexandra and apply them to understanding more about the city and its residents. Black families who were relocated in order to create white-only settlements struggled to survive and thrive. That is the curse of being black and poor, and it is a curse that follows you from generation to generation. Spend some time researching the movement of races in South Africa post-apartheid, including which resettlements were voluntary and which were forced by the government.
How and why do you think these relocations impacted racial equality and upward mobility? Noah also had a peer group of young men throughout his adolescence. Compare these relationships, noting the impact of each on Noah, particularly as related to models of masculinity. What did Noah learn from each of them?
What are the challenges and benefits of each of these relationships for Noah?
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Noah compares the teaching of the Holocaust to German students to the teaching of apartheid to South African students. What does his account suggest about how historical memory is preserved for some groups and not for others? What does his story suggest about the importance of including an emotional or moral dimension in these historical accounts? Read other accounts of how race was determined in apartheid-era South Africa.
What similarities and differences exist in these accounts? What do the measures that governments take to prevent races from mixing suggest about race and racism? As an extension of this activity, consider how early census-takers in the United States implemented similar practices for determining race and how the policies derived from these practices impacted Americans.
Noah argues for a complete understanding of the atrocities and the legacies of apartheid in South Africa. Then, assess how institutionalized racism has affected Alexandra and other places in South Africa and what that racism suggests about the impact of upward mobility and the possibility of equality for black South Africans.
Noah describes how he used hip-hop to broker his entry into peer groups and events, and as a source of income.
Select lyrics from a few global hip-hop artists and conduct a critical analysis of the lyrics. Additionally, draw on research from hip-hop scholars. Then present your findings in a three-column chart that notes similarities and differences in the text of the lyrics. The changing categories the U. One Drop Of Love. BBC Films, Hruby Powell, Patricia. Loving vs. Chronicle Books, Nichols, Jeff. Focus Features, Parker holds a Ph. Learn More About Born a Crime pdf. LitFlash The eBooks you want at the lowest prices. Read it Forward Read it first. Pass it on! Stay in Touch Sign up.