French Canadians constitute the second largest ethnic group in Canada, behind those of English ancestry, ahead of those of Scottish and Irish heritage. Not all francophone Canadians are of French-Canadian descent or heritage, as the body of French language speakers in Canada includes significant immigrant communities from other francophone countries such as Haiti , Algeria , Tunisia or Vietnam — and not all French Canadians are francophone, as a significant number of people who have French Canadian ethnic roots are native English speakers.
The French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries. The original use of the term Canada referred to the land area along the St. Lawrence River , divided in three districts, as well as to the Pays d'en Haut, a vast and thinly settled territorial dependence north and west of Montreal which covered the whole of the Great Lakes area.
From to the s, the French word Canadien had referred to the First Nations the French had encountered in the St. Lawrence River valley at Stadacona and Hochelaga. At the end of the 17th century, Canadien became an ethnonym distinguishing the inhabitants of Canada from those of France. The latter three were grouped together by Jantzen as "French New World " ancestries because they originate in Canada. Jantzen distinguishes the English Canadian , meaning "someone whose family has been in Canada for multiple generations", the French Canadien, used to refer to descendants of the original settlers of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The English-speaking residents who arrived from Great Britain were called "Anglais"; this usage continued until Canadian Confederation in Confederation united several former British colonies into the Dominion of Canada , from that time forward, the word "Canadian" has been used to describe both English-speaking and French-speaking citizens, wherever they live in the country; those reporting "French New World" ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least four generations in Canada. The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada.
The site controlled a river portage alongside the mouth of the rapids-infested La Chute River , in the 3. It was thus strategically placed for the competition over trade routes between the British-controlled Hudson River Valley and the French-controlled Saint Lawrence River Valley; the terrain amplified the importance of the site. Both lakes were long and narrow and oriented north—south, as were the many ridge lines of the Appalachian Mountains , which extended as far south as Georgia. During the Battle of Carillon , 4, French defenders were able to repel an attack by 16, British troops near the fort.
In , the British drove a token French garrison from the fort. During the American Revolutionary War, when the British controlled the fort, it was attacked in May in the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga by the Green Mountain Boys and other state militia under the command of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold , who captured it in the surprise attack.
Cannons taken from the fort were transported to Boston to lift its siege by the British, who evacuated the city in March The Americans held the fort until June , when British forces under General John Burgoyne occupied high ground above it. The only direct attack on the fort during the Revolution took place in September , when John Brown led Americans in an unsuccessful attempt to capture the fort from about British defenders; the British abandoned the fort after the failure of the Saratoga campaign, it ceased to be of military value after After gaining independence, the United States allowed the fort to fall into ruin.
Purchased by a private family in , it became a stop on tourist routes of the area. Early in the 20th century, its private owners restored the fort.
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A foundation now operates the fort as a tourist attraction and research center. Lake Champlain, which forms part of the border between New York and Vermont , the Hudson River together formed an important travel route, used by Indians long before the arrival of European colonists; the route was free of obstacles to navigation, with only a few portages. One strategically important place on the route lies at a narrows near the southern end of Lake Champlain, where Ticonderoga Creek, known in colonial times as the La Chute River, because it was named by French colonists, enters the lake, carrying water from Lake George.
Although the site provides commanding views of the southern extent of Lake Champlain, Mount Defiance , at ft, two other hills overlook the area. Indians had occupied the area for centuries before French explorer Samuel de Champlain first arrived there in Champlain recounted that the Algonquins , with whom he was traveling, battled a group of Iroquois nearby.
In , French missionary Isaac Jogues was the first white man to traverse the portage at Ticonderoga while escaping a battle between the Iroquois and members of the Huron tribe; the French, who had colonized the Saint Lawrence River valley to the north, the English, who had taken over the Dutch settlements that became the Province of New York to the south, began contesting the area as early as , when Pieter Schuyler built a small wooden fort at the Ticonderoga point on the western shore of the lake.
In , following the Battle of Lake George , the French decided to construct a fort here. During the next year, the four main bastions were built, as well as a sawmill on the La Chute.
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Work slowed in , when many of the troops prepared for and participated in the attack on Fo. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain : he was born and brought up in northern Germany , his grandmother, Sophia of Hanover , became second in line to the British throne after about 50 Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement and the Acts of Union , which restricted the succession to Protestants. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they rejoined the governing party in ; as king from , George exercised little control over British domestic policy, controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain.
As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover , where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, who supported the parliamentary opposition.
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During the War of the Austrian Succession , George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in , thus became the last British monarch to lead an army in battle. For two centuries after George II's death, history tended to view him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses , short temper, boorishness. Since most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments.
His sister, Sophia Dorothea, was born.
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Both of George's parents committed adultery , in their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband, she was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian , studied genealogy, military history, battle tactics with particular diligence.
George's second cousin once removed , Queen Anne , ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in , she had no surviving children, by the Act of Settlement , the English Parliament designated Anne's closest Protestant blood relations, George's grandmother Sophia and her descendants, as Anne's heirs in England and Ireland.
After his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms. England and Scotland united in to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, jointly accepted the succession as laid down by the English Act of Settlement. George's father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made.
In June , under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach , the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia ; the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley , reported that George was so taken by "the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else".
A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders , but his father refused permission for him to join the army in an active role until he had a son and heir. In early , George's hopes were fulfilled. In July, Caroline fell ill with smallpox , George caught the infection after staying by her side devotedly during her illness, they both recovered. In , George participated in the Battle of Oudenarde in the vanguard of the Hanoverian cavalry; the British commander, wrote that George "distinguished himself charging at the head of and animating by his example troops, who played a good part in this happy victory".
Between and , George and Caroline had three more children, all girls: Anne and Caroline. By , Queen Anne's health had declined, British Whigs , politicians who supported the Hanoverian succession, thought it prudent for one of the Hanoverians to live in England, to safeguard. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean , to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean , to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.
North America covers an area of about 24,, square kilometers, about North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In , its population was estimated at nearly million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40, to 17, years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10, years ago.
The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended in , the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants.
Vespucci, who explored South America between and , was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies , but a different landmass unknown by Europeans.
He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In , Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division.
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The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English , North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico , the United States , Canada , although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. North America has been referred to by other names.
Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America.
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Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St.
Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie. The word "Canada" at this point referred to the territory along the Saint Lawrence River known as the Canada river, from Grosse Island in the east to a point between Quebec and Three Rivers , although this territory had expanded by French explorations continued "unto the Countreys of Canada and Saguenay " before any permanent settlements were established. Though a permanent trading post and habitation was established at Tadoussac in , at the confluence of the Saguenay and Saint Lawrence rivers, it was under a trade monopoly and thus not constituted as an official French colonial settlement; as a result, the first official settlement was not established within Canada until the founding of Quebec by Samuel de Champlain in The other four colonies within New France were Hudson's Bay to the north and Newfoundland to the east, Louisiana far to the south.
The governor of the District of Quebec was the governor-general of all New France. In the Treaty of Paris of , which formally ended the conflict, France renounced its claim to Canada in exchange for other colonies and the colony became the British colony of Quebec. A survey of the population of the St. Lawrence River valley counted about 44, colonists, the majority born in Canada. Acadia had 8, inhabitants. Dependent on Canada were the Pays d'en Haut, a vast territory north and west of Montreal, covering the whole of the Great Lakes and stretching as far into the North American continent as the French had explored.
Before , when it ceded territory to the new colony of Louisiana, it stretched as far south as the Illinois Country. Following the destruction of the Huron homeland in by the Iroquois , the French destroyed the mission themselves and left the area. Today, the term Les Pays-d'en-Haut refers to a regional county municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, north of Montreal, while the former Pays d'en Haut was part of the District of Montreal.