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When was the Old Testament written—and who wrote it?

We can see very clearly that Torah and Psalms are quoted disproportionately; prophetic texts are very often referenced, but in relation to their text length this number of references is not as significant as for the Psalms. Historical texts are very clearly underquoted. As far as the New Testament is concerned, the Gospels and Pauline Epistles are the most quoted texts, both absolutely and in relation to their text length.

This is due to the actual practices of the Fathers, but also from a selection bias due to the systematic choice of Matthew in the database in case of identical synoptic parallels. A top ten list of the most quoted verses can also be established. We can see the predilection of the Church Fathers for christological verses: equality between God and his Son and the reality of the incarnation are the main issues debated with pagan, Jewish or heretical adversaries.

These are not surprising results, but the establishment of such global comparison points is completely new. Insofar as the text of the patristic quotations will be gradually integrated into the database, we shall ultimately be able to reconstruct the Bible of a particular author. Studying the use of a specific pericope can also lead to very interesting results. Although it is not exhaustive, we can assume that such a huge corpus may be a representative sample from the period that we are studying. We can draw a curve showing the number of references to each verse of this biblical section, very far from an equal use of each verse.

Verses about John 6—8 are far less quoted than the verses about the Word whom John identifies with Jesus : less than 20 references, whereas verse 1 is quoted more than 1, times! As an instrument of textual comparison and hermeneutics, BIBLINDEX makes visible thematic relationships, similarities in the grouping of references and echoes between the authors.

Without this tool, such comparisons could only be perceived with difficulty.

Genesis in the New Testament

Is this an original idea, or did some Fathers associate these two verses before him? Last but not least, the biblical references provide information about the history of the texts which quote them. They give us valuable information about the textual family or the biblical manuscripts to which the author had access; about the debates on which he was dependent. They supply him with quotations he does not always verify or reinterpret. These elements can be deduced from the shape taken by the quotation i.

The precise form of the text helps to classify texts. Tischendorf Leipzig, , repr. Isolated or organized together, these are a classical criterion to authenticate a work. Similarly, a previously unidentified allusion to the Letter of Jude helps, for example, to remove the paternity of a text ascribed by some authors to John Chrysostom who, as an Antiochene, would not quote this biblical book. Duplicates will be spotted by establishing that a particular fragment comes from a work transmitted and known in another way.

More Posts - Website. On the 21st of May, a day after the first severe earthquake since centuries began to shake my region, I was asked an expertise on a Greek manuscript of Munich. Marina Molin Pradel, who is preparing the new catalogue of the Greek manuscripts of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, wished to submit to my attention a discovery she had made on Holy Thursday.

Moreover, she noticed that the list of the other homilies corresponded to a large extent to that presented by Jerome in his Letter 33 to Paula, the most important group being the series of nine homilies on Psalm I worked hastily in the following weeks to go through the considerable manuscript folios and check its content.

More and more, albeit still provisionally, I have come to the conclusion that we have to do with a lot of lost homilies of Origen. My conviction is supported, among other things, by the exegetical treatment presented by the homilies, the doctrinal elements they preserve, the stylistic features which are typical of the great Alexandrian. In addition, some excerpts of these homilies were already known to us under his name in some catenae fragments edited in PG 17 and the Analecta Sacra of Pitra, especially with regard to Psalm Only a thorough examination of the texts transmitted by the Codex Monacensis Graecus will permit to extend with reasonable certainty the attribution to Origen of all the remaining homilies or of part of them, besides the Homilies I-IV on Psalm I have already begun with the transcription of the manuscript and hope to complete it before the end of the summer, in order to make the texts accessible to scholars.

Together with my colleagues Chiara Barilli, Antonio Cacciari and Emanuela Prinzivalli I plan to prepare without delay a critical edition of the homilies. Marina Molin Pradel will present her discovery and offer some samples of the manuscript in the next issue of Adamantius , due to be published before the autumn. A series of initiatives are planned to announce the discovery of the new texts to the scholarly world and to promote their knowledge and study.

1.1. Studying the constitution and history of the canon

On monday the 11th of June the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek will release a public statement about the discovery. A seminar will take place at Padua University the 25th of June and a day-conference is planned for the 5th of December in Munich at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. At the time we were submerged by the snow no less than by the uncomfortable impression of the heavy task still waiting the editors of the catenae fragments. Now, in the middle of renewed quakes, we have been given an unexpected gift that we would like to share with all those who love Origen.

The photographic reproduction of the entire codex is available HERE.

This work is based on the Perseus Digital Library. This talk extends this approach to address the publication of gnomologia, or anthologies of wise sayings, which formed a widespread literary genre in many of the mediaeval Mediterranean cultures. The challenge of these texts arises from the fact that they were rarely copied, resulting in a highly-interconnected corpus for which this standard approach to digital publication is insufficient.

Focusing on Greek and Arabic collections, we address this challenge using semantic web techniques to build up an ecosystem of relationships, and consider a new model of what constitutes an edition of this material. For our test cases the texts are taken from the zeno. But also any other text under a creative commons license a user would like to upload could be used.

The results will be provided to the public in a freely accessible web-based frontend, designed to provide a virtual research environment not only to find and comment these results, but also to complement them with your own findings. The talk will present and demonstrate a mock-up of the front end and discuss problems of a typology of text re-use. The last year was spent mostly on data cleansing and the annotation of the texts. For next year, we are planning exciting analysis on the motivation and sentiment of citations.

We are presenting our first prototype, [histo]Suche, which allows us to do a full text search on the cleaned documents. Our next use case will be the CitationRecommender that uses sentiment analysis and citation context to find good additional citation for an author.


  1. An IT Paradigm.
  2. New Testaments.
  3. Sudden Times.
  4. THE CHRISTMAS SANTA LOST HIS GLASSES;

Dealing with sayings in different languages, however, the researcher has to decide, whether the passage in question is a parallel or a variant different from the Vorlage. The analysis of the translation technique is therefore of particular importance in order to outline the transmission of collections of sayings in Greek, Syriac, and Arabic.

Andrea Scharnhorst, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam: Digital traces of scholarship — from classical bibliometrics to new tasks for information providers This talks give a short introduction into bibliometrics — the quantitative study of scholarly communication — and its more modern forms webometrics and altmetrics.

It discusses the role of standardization in large-scale data mining about scientific activities. The talk closes with discussing the role of information providers such as archives for a cartography of science and a better navigation in the scientific landscape. The Digital Humanities Congress is a new conference which will be held in Sheffield every two years. Its purpose is to promote the sharing of knowledge, ideas and techniques within the digital humanities.

Digital humanities is understood by Sheffield to mean the use of technology within arts, heritage and humanities research as both a method of inquiry and a means of dissemination. As such, proposals related to all disciplines within the arts, humanities and heritage domains are welcome. We welcome proposals on all aspects of the digital humanities. For example, proposals might wish to focus on:.

These proposals might focus on how specific research questions were solved. This might concern new technology, social trends, infrastructure, policy, funding, assessing value or pedagogy. Proposals are welcome from academics, researchers, postgraduate students, professionals from within the cultural, heritage and information sectors, technologists and SMEs.

Proposals are welcome from UK and international contributors. Contributors can propose individual papers or sessions of three or more papers on a related theme.

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The Canon of Scripture - Study Resources

Individual papers will be to a maximum of 20 minutes duration. Each paper will then be allotted a further 10 minutes for questions. Sessions will consist of three or more papers on a related theme to a maximum of 60 minutes. Each session will then be allotted a further 30 minutes for questions. Proposals should be submitted in Microsoft Word or plain text format to the following email address: dhc sheffield.

The deadline for submissions is 30th April All proposers will be notified by 11th May All successful proposers will be eligible for the early bird registration packages. Early bird registration will end on 31st May Discounted full residential package incl. The Summer School on Christian Apocryphal Literature, Strasbourg June , gives a valuable opportunity to become acquainted with the advances and current directions in research on the Latin Collection of the Acts of Apostles Virtues Apostolorum and its reception in artistic production.

It will allow students and scholars to interact with the foremost specialists in the field and to work on some unedited materials under their direction in a series of instructional workshops. Then put into practice Mt 14, 20…. The Colloquium Biblicum Lovaniense. The meetings take place in the Faculty of Theology at the K. Leuven and are alternately dedicated to a topic in Old and in New Testament Studies. The Colloquium offers a forum and meeting place for research and scholarly discussion in the field of Biblical Studies.

How was the Old Testament written?

As a rule the annual conference focuses on a biblical book or a collection of writings, but it also addresses thematic subjects.