With the destruction of the village of Malka on 22nd December ended the campaign. However, this was after the British lost soldiers, including thirty six British officers , it represented the highest losses inflicted on Indian troops during a campaign on the North-West Frontier. The Umbeyla campaign generated great debate and interest among the officers regarding the hill warfare. The problems which the imperial troops faced during the campaign were discussed in detail by many military officials, Colonel John Adye, who was highly critical pointed out: Mountain warfare, They not only hold the commanding points, but the very habits of their daily life render them particularly adapted to irregular fighting.
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Acknowledging the services of those people J. Our most dangerous and important frontier is thus guarded … by a force recruited entirely from the martial races on the spot. The Umbeyla campaign was one of the most serious and large scale military operations that the British faced after the famous uprising of It was vital for the British to stop the influence of Mujahidin or Hindustani Fanatics to undermine British interests in the area. The expedition was an eye opener for the British military as the imperialist troops encounters some serious and bloody fighting.
The British also acknowledged the skills and bravery of the tribes who were master in guerilla warfare. As a result of this particular operation enmity, animosity and hatred towards the British increased and in future the British would embark upon many more large scales military operations in the North-West Frontier of India. From Liut. Serial No. From The Adjutant General E. Military Department, Serial No.
Military Department of the Punjab. Directorate of Archives and Libraries, Peshawar, Pakistan. Military Department. Books Adye, John. London: R. Bentley, Allen, Charles.
Cambridge, Mass. Caroe, Olaf. The Pathans B. Coen , T. Elliot, J. Forrest, G. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and Sons, Quetta: Nisa Traders, Haroon, Sana. Hunter, W. The Indian Musalmans. London: Turbner and Company, Latham, R. North-West Frontier, Oxford; Osprey Publishing, Meher, Ghulam Rasool. Syed Ahmad Shaheed , 3rd ed. Lahore: Sheikh Ghulam Ali and Sons, Moreman, T.
Life of Field-Marshal Sir Neville Chamberlain, G. C. B., G. C. S. I. in SearchWorks catalog
London: MacMillan Press Ltd, Nevill, H. Campaigns on the North-West Frontier.
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Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, Nichols, Robert. Settling the frontier: land, law, and society in the Peshawar Valley, — Karachi: Oxford University Press. Richards, D. London: Macmillan Ltd, Sabir, Muhammad Shafi. Peshawar: University Book Agency, Lahore: Albadar Publications, Spiers, Edward M. The Late Victorian army, Manchester: Manchester University Press, Stewert, C.
Routledge and sons Swinson, Arthur. North West Frontier People and Events London: Hutchinson and Co Ltd.
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Thorburn, S. The Punjab in Peace and War. Thornton, T. Robert Sandeman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Wylly, H. The Borderland: The Country of the Pathans. Karachi: Indus Publications Research Journals Khan, Sarfraz. Khan, Noor ul Haq. The British mounted dozens of expeditions before the Umbeyla Campaign. C Coen,. Edward M. Before the Muslim conquests the region was honoured by Buddhists as Udiyana, the Paradise Garden, and by Hindus as the Great Forest, a favourite retreat of sagas and hermits.
Popularly known as the Mujahadeen Movement. Sitana, a village near the Mahabun mountains, which stand on the west bank of the Indus, some forty miles north of Attock, and seventy-five miles north-west of Peshawar. For the British it was a wild, inaccessible area with narrow passes, and high peaks. Captain George Vincent, Fosbery, V. Blackwood and Sons, , pp. By a series of well-planned and daring exploits Syed Ahmed established his influence over the neighbouring tribes, and kept the Sikh armies for many years actively employed.
In Peshawar fell into his hands and in the famous battle of Balakot in he along his hundreds of followers was killed in the battle field. Those of his followers who survived the defeat, found their way to Sitana, The village belonged to Syed Akhbar Shah, one of the lieutenants of the Syed Ahmad.
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He welcomed the fugitives, allowed them to settle on his land and to found a colony famous in the military annals of the border. Thornton, Col. See also: Indian Rebellion of Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 6 October The London Gazette. Unitarian Universalist Association. The Times Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.