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Programmable electronic devices of all sorts have come to pervade modern society to such a degree that future generations may well designate the 20th century as the Computer Age. This paper, as well as later research by Shannon, lays the groundwork for the future telecommunications and computer industries. The obscure project, called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer ABC , incorporates binary arithmetic and electronic switching.

Before the computer is perfected, Atanasoff is recruited by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory and never resumes its research and development.

First binary digital computers are developed The first binary digital computers are developed. In Germany, Konrad Zuse develops the first programmable calculator, the Z2, using binary numbers and Boolean algebra—programmed with punched tape. On average, Colossus deciphers a coded message in two hours. Specifications of a stored-program computer Two mathematicians, Briton Alan Turing and Hungarian John von Neumann, work independently on the specifications of a stored-program computer.

Von Neumann writes a document describing a computer on which data and programs can be stored. Turing publishes a paper on an Automatic Computing Engine, based on the principles of speed and memory. The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENIAC , used for ballistics computations, weighs 30 tons and includes 18, vacuum tubes, 6, switches, and 1, relays.

Transistor is invented John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William B. Shockley of Bell Telephone Laboratories invent the transistor. First computer designed for U. Its breakthrough feature: magnetic tape storage to replace punched cards.

Re-inventing the Wheel? Standards, Interoperability and Digital Cultural Content

Attaining the rank of rear admiral in a navy career that brackets her work at Harvard and Eckert-Mauchly, Hopper eventually becomes the driving force behind many advanced automated programming technologies. Employees will be on the lookout for the best digital opportunities, and businesses will have to continually up their digital game to retain and attract them. Taking risks becomes a cultural norm. Digitally maturing organizations are more comfortable taking risks than their less digitally mature peers.

To make their organizations less risk averse, business leaders have to embrace failure as a prerequisite for success. They must also address the likelihood that employees may be just as risk averse as their managers and will need support to become bolder.

Digital Revolution - Wikipedia

The digital agenda is led from the top. Maturing organizations are nearly twice as likely as less digitally mature entities to have a single person or group leading the effort. But consider this example: The tables in question were in the offices of a large, online travel company working with Humanyze, a people-analytics company headquartered in Boston that is a spinoff of the MIT Media Lab. Humanyze integrates wearables, sensors, digital data and analytics to identify who talks to whom, where they spend time and how they talk to each other.

The analysis identifies patterns of collaboration that correlate with high employee productivity. In addition, the analysis showed that productivity went up based on the number of people at the same table. At the company being analyzed, Humanyze found that employees typically lunched with either four or 12 people. A quick inspection of the cafeteria solved the puzzle — all the tables were for either four or 12 people. Our report last year on social business found similar shortcomings standing in the way of technology reaching its potential.

Our findings this year are based on an assessment of digital business maturity and how maturing organizations differ from others. See Figure 1. Although we found some differences in technology use between different levels of maturity, we found that as organizations mature, they develop the four technologies social, mobile, analytics and cloud in near equal measure. The greatest differences between levels of maturity lie in the business aspects of the organization. Digitally maturing companies, for example, are more than five times more likely to have a clear digital strategy than are companies in early stages.

Digitally maturing organizations are also much more likely to have collaborative cultures that encourage risk taking. Several obstacles stand in the way of digital maturity; lack of strategy and competing priorities lead the list of speed bumps. As companies move up the maturity curve, competing priorities and concerns over digital security become the primary obstacles.

See Figure 2. To a great extent, digital strategy drives digital maturity. See Figure 3.

The Brief History of the ENIAC Computer

Effectively communicating strategy is equally important, and maturing companies excel at it. The ultimate power of a digital strategy lies in its scope and objectives. As was the case with electricity and rail transport, many technologies will become available to all and thus provide no inherent advantage. The trap to avoid, according to Carr, is focusing on technology as an end in itself. Instead, technology should be a means to strategically potent ends.

Our research found that early-stage companies are falling into the trap of focusing on technology over strategy. Digital strategies at early-stage entities have a decidedly operational focus. In maturing companies, on the other hand, digital technologies are more clearly being used to achieve strategic ends. The importance that these organizations place on using digital technology to improve innovation and decision making also reflects a broad scope beyond the technologies themselves.

See Figure 4.

The computer revolution: how it's changed our world over 60 years

When developing a more advanced digital strategy, the best approach may be to turn the traditional strategy development process on its head. Benn Konsynski, the George S. I would rather start by rethinking business and commerce and then work backwards. New capabilities make new solutions possible, and needed solutions stimulate demand for new capabilities. Currently, McCormick uses FlavorPrint to recommend recipes to its consumers. But the vision is much bolder. McCormick thinks of FlavorPrint as the Pandora of flavorings, which has prompted the organization to see itself as a food experience company rather than a purveyor of spices.

Eventually, all McCormick flavors will be digitized, and the company will be able to tailor them to regional, cultural and even individual personal tastes. Although all the needed technologies are not yet available, they likely will be in the coming years, and the strategy to take advantage of them is already in place. Consistent with our overall findings, the ability to conceptualize how digital technologies can impact the business is a skill lacking in early-stage companies.

The ability to adapt quickly to change also stands out as an important capability. Perry Hewitt, chief digital officer at Harvard University, says agility is more important than technology skills. Training to fill skill gaps is increasingly offered online and on a just-in-time basis. As part of its new approach to learning, The Walt Disney Co. Just as important as developing talent is reducing the risk of losing it.

The sentiment crosses all age groups, from 22 to 60, nearly equally. This is about how humans interact, not just about how Millennials do. Employees of all ages are on the lookout for the best digital companies and opportunities. See Figure 6. That engagement is the function of two critical components of strategy execution: culture and leadership.

A culture conducive to digital transformation is a hallmark of maturing companies. These organizations have a strong propensity to encourage risk taking, foster innovation and develop collaborative work environments. Infographic from the Digital Business Global Study and Research Project illustrates the importance of digital maturity.

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View the Infographic JPG. Digitally maturing organizations are considerably less risk averse than their peers. Phil Simon, author of several books on how technology impacts business, sees risk aversion as a serious impediment that plagues many established companies. Making a culture less risk averse is by no means an insurmountable task. To boost risk taking in their companies, executives need to change their mindsets. John Halamka, chief information officer of the Boston health care provider Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, says that leaders must acknowledge failure as a prerequisite for success.

CHI 2019 SIGCHI Lifetime Research Award - Hiroshi Ishii: Making Digital Tangible

We may discover that patients love the Apple Watch wrist-wearable device and it becomes a platform. In that instance, we had the courage to keep going without overinvesting to the point where we were betting the company on it.

But it would be a mistake to suggest that only the mindset of leaders drives aversion to risk. Employees may fear taking risks as much as their managers do. Encouraging employees to be bolder is especially important in digital business transformations.