They are defined disciplines that were designed in an era of industrialization, expansion of democratic principles, and rationality. In contrast, the discipline of sustainability emerged in the s at a time of great environmental and social concern around globalization, the meaning of the individual in a globalized world, and inquiries about values-based knowledge and ideological underpinnings of accepted truths.
Big questions in the academy focused, in part, on the basic structures of science, the social construction of truth, and the creation of multiple understandings of shared experiences. Within the environmental movement of the s we also saw basic questions regarding the role of environmental groups in promoting social equity, the impact of globalization on the environment, and the place of supranational organizations in society.
We began to understand that every corner of our world was forever changed as a result of industrialization and overconsumption. Many believed that international and national organizations were powerless to address big global issues like climate change. Focused early around issues of sustainable development, sustainability quickly became used in a number of contexts in very different ways. Those interested in green building used the word to focus on technological advances in architecture and engineering.
Those interested in agriculture used it to frame food supply systems. Those interested in social equity used it to promote dialogue on environmental justice. Those interested in international development used the term to create discussion on globalization and the impacts of consumerism on lesser developed countries. Hundreds of different forms of sustainability emerged in concept and in practice. In this piece we discussed the vast differences in how sustainability concepts are applied in remote Chile and suburban Long Island.
Both regions are embracing sustainability, but in distinctly different, indeed somewhat conflicting, ways. In postmodern theory, a process of deconstruction is often used to better understand the ideological underpinnings of an idea. In deconstructing the idea of sustainability, we can find that there are so many different ideological, regional, and contextual underpinnings that it becomes very difficult to define with a modernist disciplinary sensibility. For example, there are certainly Marxist theorists who embrace components of sustainability, while at the same time Wal-Mart has embraced sustainability within their corporate model.
The Marxists and the capitalists find common, although bubbly and unstable, ground within the discourse of sustainability. In many ways, sustainability is in the eye of the beholder. To me, sustainability is all about assessing and measuring how we can be lighter on the planet. I believe that we can find technological fixes in the U. At the same time, I believe we need to consume less and have a far smaller footprint on the planet.
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We also must find better ways to address social equity and environmental justice. That's my view of sustainability. People are empowered from encouraging. Empowerment of people means providing context for listening to their sound and sharing in the knowledge- power trade. In post-modernism thinking, shared decision making and thinking are the results from contributing in organization Powell and DiMaggio, When coordination of voluntary, informal, non- institutional protocol, to be created by individuals and organizational units, the creation is done.
In this case, the employees must understand their objectives and their unit and clear picture of what they need should be considered. For this purpose, post- modern management by establishing the different work group will facilitate talking among people trying to exchange information between them and resulted in more participation of them and so improvement organizational activities are open Clapper, Talking is of importance by post-modernisms because it is an instrument to strengthen and extend their social interaction and cause: the tendency to promote cooperation and collective action, increasing tolerance to the opposing views and developing new ways to solve problems will follow Ahanchian, The control is applied by interview and interview structure may encourage acts of subordinates in an organization, and thus control means engaging in a dialogue of equals knowledge.
Own control is done by acceptance of personal responsibility for your work.
Because in the post-modern organization the presence and relationship are based on shared values, it is expected that due to the internal pull of personnel and external gravitations and organizational issues, disciplinary problems appear to be lowest Boje and Dennehy, Post-modern organization paradigms The modern paradigm based on instrumental rationality and the logic of efficiency, provided valuable service to organizations in the era of modernism, where the primary focus was on mass production and construction of simple machines. In fact, growth and development of organizations in the era of modernity resulted from the valuable activities of people such as Durkhym, Weber, Taylor and others.
But in the post- modernism organizations, focus is on the empowerment of people. The main emphasis of this thought can be expressed as: decision-making based on values, feelings and preferences of individuals and the vast understanding of bureaucracy is considered that in it the unofficial leader and the groups have important roles. There are always several ways to achieve a certain result. In the "integrated thinking" against "analytical thinking" achieving a desired result is considered rather than a specific method. Among the obvious examples of this idea in an organization, TQM can be noted which is based on the philosophy of continuous improvement, analytical assessment of the work and the development of a culture quality.tiutfulalunbe.gq
Development and Impact of Postmodernism
Analytical logic thinking is a type of thinking based on detailed analysis to better understand the whole. It means that for understanding a whole subject, knowledge about components will suffice. Durkheim and Taylor studies on timing and the working, is the result of analytical thinking. But in the combined logic or thinking, understanding the component is possible only with whole understanding.
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What is the important in analytical thinking, is taking the result from the components and the overall result is always the sum of the partial results. But in combined thinking, how and why achieving results is also of important. In addition, the final result is not necessarily equals to sum of the results. In the modern theory, emphasis on effects of leaders and studying the legal status of leaders in bureaucracy is concerned, but in post-modern theory, how the leadership process is emphasized Rahman Seresht, In new thinking, leader is not solely on the logical legitimate location.
Leadership is not dependent on the valuable exchanges with others, to influence them, but there is an emphasis on the ability of the leader's personality and his influence on the beliefs, values, attitudes and actions of others. Therefore lead rational models should be combined with irrational models based on intuition, charisma, etc. These differences put "pragmatic leaders" against "transformational leadership".
Pragmatic Leader: interested in maintaining legal status, improving the quality of performance through exchanges in chief -subordinate and enhancing motivation in employees.
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Transformational Leadership: influences through a system of shared values and beliefs and force adherents to the new looking and efforts in achieving the goals. Innovative leaders are autonomous in decision-making and problem-solving, but post-modernism leaders investigate the perfectly rational decision- making. In one of the new methods in the study of leadership, is studying personal values and feelings of leader followers instead of studying the skills, performance or characteristics of the leader Parsa, Investigating model or the single cause in studying the process of leadership is an unhelpful and annoying task.
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While modern leadership studies, aimed at finding the causes of the effectiveness of a feature or behavior, the "effective leader" is not distinguished; but in post-modern leadership studies because of the integration many ways arises for effectiveness. Research methods in the leadership process in post-modernism relies on "aesthetics" instead relying on experience Catherine Toffler, Conclusions According to what was said and what was related to postmodernism on management theory, the formation and management of beyond modern organizations, it can be noted that a new world requires new organizations and new organizations are in need of new leaders.
The leaders who moreover relying on the wisdom and teachings of the classical era of modernity organizations, with new thinking tools are based on an understanding of values and feelings and are believed to be factors in the decision. The leadership and management in the future will require a better understanding of the complex relationships within and outside the new-oriented organizations and will require leadership to address the post-new-oriented organizations and new people need to tolerate the variables.
On the one hand, the importance of creativity and growing in organizations, leaders are seen by subordinates, and on the other hand, multiple causes, values and aesthetic thinking and decision-making based on facts and the manufacturers should be accepted. References Ahanchian MR, End Management: collapse of management narratives in modern times.
Sustainability: The First Postmodern Discipline
Tehran, Iran. Boje D, Dennehy R, The Story of Post Modern Management. Clapper A, Department of Public Administration. Theories of organizational communication. Miller C, Mirsepasi N, Management of human resources and labor relations, Tehran, Iran. Parsa K, Post-modernism criticism. Second edition, Tehran, Iran. The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. University of Chicago Press, p.
Rahman Seresht H, Organization and management theories; from modernity to post-modernity.
The first volume. Richard S, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Related Papers. By minoo afshani. Three of concepts: Modernism, Postmodernism and globalization. By Abdolmajid Arfaei Moghaddam.
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